They also have a single 'finger' on the upper lip of their trunks as opposed to African elephants, which have a second one on the lower tip. Reproductive Stages 2. When broken down by the age class of the mother Table 4 , there seems to be a tendency for primiparous females to have more males compared to females in their peak reproductive years. Asian elephants have been domesticated for thousands of years. Elephants use their tusks to dig for roots and water, strip bark from trees, and even fight each other. The five who lost their calves in contrast had intervals of 26—38 months.
We therefore present only raw counts of mortalities, rather than estimates of age-specific survivorship in this study. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was We estimated the inter-birth intervals IBI using multiple cohorts representing decreasing levels of accuracy but increasing sample sizes: Support Center Support Center. Published online May Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity.
Table of Contents - Elephants: Diseases and Treatment
Campos-Arceiz A Shit happens to be useful! Elsevier Academic Press. Some females were observed nursing two calves simultaneously, and one exceptional female permitted all three of her calves to nurse in close succession. When broken down by the age class of the mother Table 4 , there seems to be a tendency for primiparous females to have more males compared to females in their peak reproductive years. In contrast, two adult females and one sub-adult male exhibited signs of sudden death, also without any external indications of injury. Indian elephant Elephas maximus pushing down fence, Sri Lanka. While approximately a quarter to a third of the living Asian elephants may be in captive or semi-captive situations that are closely monitored  ,  ,  —  , very little is known about the remaining wild populations that are scattered throughout South and South East Asia.
Males usually live alone but sometimes form small groups with other males. Age-specific fecundity per capita. We therefore present only raw counts of mortalities, rather than estimates of age-specific survivorship in this study. Population Population 40, - 50, Geist V, Walther F, editors. Data presented in Figure 5b. Detailed Physiology Notes.